Various epidemiological studies have indicated a number of genetic and environmental factors that can predispose prostate cancer. Following is a list of prostate cancer risk factors:
- Age: Older age men are generally at increased risk of developing prostate cancer. About 60% of all the incidence of prostate cancer is observed in men older than 65 years of age.
- Family history: Individuals with a history of prostate cancer in close relatives are considered to be at increased risk of developing prostate cancer.
- Genetic alterations: Some inherited genetic alterations have been reported to be associated with a high risk of prostate cancer, e.g., Lynch syndrome or hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC, generally caused by mutation in the MLH1 or MSH2 gene), mutations in RNASEL, MSR1, HOXB13, and BRCA2 genes, etc.
- Race/ethnicity: African-American and Caribbean men are generally at higher risk of developing and dying of prostate cancer.
- Overweight or obese males are at higher risk of developing an aggressive form of prostate cancer.
- Diet: It has been reported that a diet rich in red meat, fats, dairy foods, and calcium may increase the risk of prostate cancer, while an adequate consumption of vegetables and antioxidants such as vitamin E and selenium may reduce the risk of prostate cancer.
Also Read: Prostate cancer treatment.
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