CancerBro, in my treatment summary, it was mentioned T2 N1 M0. What does that mean?
TNM is the staging system used for pancreatic cancer.
It is called as T1 when the tumor is less than 2 cm in size.
T2 when the tumor is 2 to 4 cm in size.
And T3, when the tumor is more than 4 cm in size. In T1 to T3 disease, the tumor may be limited to the pancreas and may be located in the head of the pancreas. Or tail, or any other part of the pancreas.
Or else, it may extend beyond the pancreas to involve the adjacent structures.
In this figure, cancer in the head of the pancreas invades the duodenum.
Here, cancer in the pancreatic tail invades the spleen. Here it extends to the left kidney and suprarenal gland. It may also extend also extend above, to involve splenic artery. Or behind, to invade the superior mesenteric vein. Or splenic vein. Or portal vein.
Now we come to the T4 disease. In this figure, cancer has spread beyond the pancreas, to involve the common hepatic artery.
Infiltration into the coeliac artery is also T4 disease. So is the involvement of the superior mesenteric artery.
So is the involvement of the superior mesenteric artery.
Now we come to the N staging or the nodal staging for pancreatic cancer.
It is called as a positive disease if cancer extends to involve the regional lymph nodes.
Regional lymph nodes may be different for the head, body, and the tail of the pancreas.
Lastly, we come to the M staging or the metastatic staging for pancreatic cancer. It is called as M1 when there is a spread of the tumor to distant organs.
In this figure, it has spread to the peritoneum, in form of multiple peritoneal deposits.
And here, it has spread to the liver in form of multiple nodular deposits. This figure shows the spread of the tumor to the lungs.
Very rarely, it may also spread to brain or bones.
So this was the TNM staging for pancreatic cancer.
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