Now, we come to the ovary cancer staging.
Stage 1A is when the tumor is localised to one ovary with intact capsule, that is when the tumor has not spread to the surface of ovary or anywhere else.
Stage 1B when the tumor is localized to both the ovaries but with an intact capsule, with no spread of the tumor to the surface of ovary or anywhere else.
Stage 1C is when there is a capsule rupture either sponraneously or during surgery, with the presence of tumor cells on the surface of ovary or in ascitis fluid, but there is no extension of tumor to the adjacent structures.
To understand the stage 2 better, we will discuss the normal anatomy of the female pelvis. Imagine we are seeing from the top, on both side of the uterus are ovaries which are connected to the uterus with fallopian tube.
In front of the uterus is the urinary bladder, and these tube-like structures joining the bladder on both sides are called as ureters. This tube-like structure present behind the uterus is called as the rectum.
In stage 2A, cancer spreads to the fallopian tube or uterus. In this figure, it has spread to the fallopian tube.
And here, it extends to the fallopian tube and the uterus. Here it extends anteriorly to infiltrate the urinary bladder. And here it extends posteriorly to involve the rectum.
In stage 3, cancer extends outside the pelvis into the abdominal cavity. Let’s have a look at abdominal structures first.
This is the large intestine. And this is the liver, behind which is the stomach. And these are the lungs, which are present in the thoracic cavity, separated from the abdomen by the diaphragm.
In stage 3 ovarian cancer, there may be involvement of these modular structures present inside the abdomen, called as retroperitoneal lymph nodes.
Stage 3 may also present as surface deposits inside the abdomen, called peritoneal deposits.
Now we come to the stage 4 ovarian cancer. It may spread to the lungs, which may present as a fluid collection around the lung, called a pleural effusion.
Stage 4 may also present as nodular deposits in the parenchymal of the lung, or in liver or spleen. It may also present as the involvement of inguinal lymph nodes.
So this was the ovarian cancer staging.
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