In this video, CancerBro will explain the process of how breast cancer is diagnosed.
Imaging for breast cancer requires local imaging of the breast, and in some cases, whole body imaging called as systemic imaging.
Mammography is done in all the cases of breast cancer. In some cases, mammography may be inadequate, when ultrasound or MRI of the breast may be required.
In advanced disease or symptoms related to distant organ involvement, systemic imaging may be required, such as whole-body CT scan, bone scan, MRI brain or PET CT.
Mammography imaging of the breast is reported as a score called BIRADS score.
BIRADS 1 means absolutely normal breast, with 0% chances of malignancy.
BIRADS 2 means the presence of benign findings, with 0% chances of malignancy.
BIRADS 3 means the presence of findings that are probably benign, with less than 2% chances of malignancy. Needle testing of breast is not required in BIRADS 1, 2 or 3.
BIRADS 4 means suspicious for malignancy, with 2-95% chances of malignancy. Needle testing should be considered in this.
BIRADS 5 means highly suggestive of malignancy, with more than 95% chances of malignancy. Needle testing should be done in this.
Needle testing of breast may be done by FNAC or biopsy, but biopsy is preferred as it is more accurate, and provides sufficient tissue for ER, PR and HER-2 testing.
So first we did a local imaging when we had a suspicious mass in breast. Then we did a needle testing to confirm that it is cancer.
Once the diagnosis of breast cancer is confirmed, we have to do the systemic imaging depending upon clinical presentation, to stage the disease, whether it is localized, locally advanced or metastatic.
This completes the diagnostic work-up for breast cancer.
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