The thyroid cancer treatment depends on many factors including the type of thyroid cancer, stage, age, and performance status of the patient, along with other factors.
Following are the preferred treatment approaches for different types and stages of thyroid cancer but the final decision is taken by the oncologist after complete assessment of the patient.
|STAGE AND TYPE||TREATMENT|
|Stage I-II DTCs||Stage I-II DTCs are generally treated with surgery (lobectomy or total thyroidectomy) with or without radioiodine therapy (depending on the size of tumor and extent of invasion) as the standard treatment.|
|Stage III DTCs||Stage III DTCs are generally treated with surgery (total thyroidectomy) along with radioiodine therapy (if the disease is iodine-sensitive) or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as the standard treatment.|
|Stage IV DTCs||
Stage IV DTCs sensitive to iodine are generally treated with radioiodine therapy as the standard treatment.
Stage IV DTCs that are not sensitive to iodine therapy can be treated with thyroid-suppression therapy, targeted therapy, or EBRT as per physician’s discretion. Surgery and EBRT may also be employed for palliation of symptoms of advanced disease.
|Stage I-II MTCs||Stage I-II MTCs are generally treated with surgery (total thyroidectomy) with or without EBRT as the standard treatment.|
|Stage III-IV MTCs||
Stage III-IV MTCs are generally treated with surgery (total thyroidectomy) along with thyroid hormone therapy and EBRT or targeted therapy as the standard treatment.
Palliative chemotherapy may also be employed for palliation of symptoms of advanced disease.
Genetic testing is generally recommended in MTCs so that other family members can also be screened and treated, as appropriate.
|Stage IV Anaplastic thyroid cancer||
Anaplastic thyroid cancers are generally already widespread at the time of diagnosis. Rarely, when the disease is confined to locoregional area, surgery (total thyroidectomy) to remove the thyroid and regional lymph nodes can be performed.
For extensive disease, EBRT and/or chemotherapy are generally employed as standard treatment.
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Following is the brief description of various treatment types commonly employed for thyroid cancer:
It is very important to assess the benefits of each treatment option versus the possible risks and side effects before making a treatment decision. Sometimes patient’s choice and health condition are also important to make a treatment choice.
Following are ultimate goals of treating thyroid cancer:
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