The pancreatic cancer staging helps to determine the disease prognosis and to select an appropriate treatment strategy. TNM is the most commonly used for pancreatic cancer staging.
“T” stands for “Tumor Size”, “N” for “Lymph Nodes”, and “M” for “Metastasis”. Numbers and/or letters after T (is, 1, 2, 3, and 4), N (0 and 1), and M (0 and 1) provide more details about each of these factors. Once T, N, and M categories are determined, this information is combined to assign an overall stage (from 0 to IV).
Before discussing the staging, we will understand the NORMAL ANATOMY of pancreas and surrounding structures.
Following table describe the characteristics according to different of pancreatic cancer staging:
|O||Tis N0 M0||Pre-cancerous or cancer cells present only in the superficial layer of pancreatic duct cells|
|IA||T1 N0 M0||Cancer cells limited to pancreas and measures </=2 cm in largest dimension|
|IB||T2 N0 M0||Cancer cells limited to pancreas and measures >2 cm in largest dimension|
|IIA||T3 N0 M0||Cancer cells have invaded the nearby organs such as duodenum, spleen, left kidney/adrenal gland, or splenic vein/superior mesenteric vein/portal vein|
|IIB||T1-3 N1 M0||Cancer cells either limited to the pancreas or invaded in the nearby organs such as duodenum, spleen, left kidney/adrenal gland, or splenic vein/superior mesenteric vein/portal vein and have spread to nearby lymph nodes|
|III||T4 N0-1 M0||Cancer has invaded into the superior mesenteric artery or celiac artery and has spread to nearby lymph nodes|
|IV||Any T Any N M1||Cancer that has spread to the distant important organs such as lungs, bones, liver, peritoneum, and brain|
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Watch the video below where Cancerbro explains the TNM STAGING of pancreatic cancer.
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