Level of cancer antigen (CA)-125 has been reported to be elevated in patients with ovarian cancer. However, CA-125 is considered as a less specific tumor marker because it’s level may also get elevated (false positive results) in some other non-cancerous conditions like endometriosis, pelvic inﬂammatory disease (PID), liver cirrhosis, peritonitis, pleuritis, pancreatitis, or in other cancers like breast cancer, lung cancer, or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumors), etc.
Also, mucinous ovarian cancer is not always associated with an elevated level of CA-125 (false negative results). Thus, this marker is generally used for assessing the prognosis and the progression/recurrence of the disease in patients with ovarian cancer.
Germ cell ovarian cancers may be associated with an elevated level of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and/or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), depending upon the subtype. While sex cord-stromal tumors may cause an elevated blood level of inhibin.
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