The bladder is an inflatable, hollow muscular organ situated in the pelvis. The main function of the bladder is to store urine until it is excreted from the body through the urethra. In a normal adult, it can hold up to 800 mL of urine. The walls of urinary bladder consist of mainly three layers: mucosa (made up of transitional epithelium cells), lamina propria (made up of connective tissue), and muscularis propria (made up of 3 layers of smooth muscle fibers).
Urothelial carcinoma or transitional cell carcinoma (affecting transitional cells that constitute the innermost lining of the bladder, renal pelvis, ureters, and proximal urethra) is the most commonly encountered (more than 90-95% of all cases) bladder cancer. Bladder cancer mostly occurs in men and generally at a higher age.
Localised Bladder Cancer Treatment