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Blog, Gastric Cancer

Gastric Cancer-Staging


Gastric cancer staging helps to determine the disease prognosis, and to select an appropriate treatment strategy. TNM is the most commonly used staging system for breast cancer. “T” stands for “Tumor Size”, “N” for “Lymph Nodes”, and “M” for “Metastasis”. Numbers and/or letters after T (is, 1a, 1b, 2, and 3), N (0, 1, 2, and 3), and M (0 and 1) provide more details about each of these factors. Higher the number means higher the severity of the disease. Once T, N, and M categories are determined, this information is combined to assign an overall stage (from 0 to IV). Higher the stage of cancer more advanced is the disease, and consequently, more difficult is the treatment. Following table describe the characteristics of gastric cancer according to different stages:

Stomach cancer T staging

Staging Stomach Cancer N and M

Stage TNM Score Description

 

0 Tis N0 M0 Pre-cancerous or cancer cells present only in the epithelium of gastric mucosa
IA T1 N0 M0 Tumor invades mucosa or submucosa.
IB T2 N0 M0

OR

T1 N1 M0

Tumor invades the muscular layer (muscularis propria)

OR

Tumor invades mucosa or submucosa; and has spread to 1 or 2 nearby lymph nodes

IIA T3 N0 M0

 

OR

T2 N1 M0

 

OR

T1 N2 M0

Tumor invades in the subserosal connective tissue layer

OR

Tumor invades the muscular layer (muscularis propria); and has spread to 1 or 2 nearby lymph nodes

OR

Tumor invades mucosa or submucosa; and has spread to 3 to 6 nearby lymph nodes

IIB T3 N1 M0

 

OR

T2 N2 M0

 

OR

T1 N3a M0

 

OR

T4a N0 M0

Tumor invades in the subserosal connective tissue layer and has spread to 1 or 2 nearby lymph nodes

OR

Tumor invades the muscular layer (muscularis propria); and has spread to 3 to 6 nearby lymph nodes

OR

Tumor invades mucosa or submucosa; and has spread to 7 to 15 nearby lymph nodes

OR

Tumor invades the outermost serosa layer without affecting any nearby lymph node

IIIA T4b N0 M0

 

OR

T4a N1/2 M0

 

OR

T3 N2 M0

 

OR

T2 N3a M0

Tumor invades adjacent structure/organs without affecting any nearby lymph node

OR

Tumor invades up to the outermost serosa layer and has spread to 1 to 6 nearby lymph nodes

OR

Tumor invades in the subserosal connective tissue layer and has spread to 3 to 6 nearby lymph nodes

OR

Tumor invades the muscular layer (muscularis propria); and has spread to 7 to 15 nearby lymph nodes

IIIB T4b N1-2 M0

 

           OR

T3-4a N3a M0

          

           OR

T1-2 N3b M0

Tumor invades adjacent structure/organs and has affected </=6 nearby lymph nodes

OR

Tumor has invaded into subserosal connective tissue or serosa,  and has spread to 7 to 15 nearby lymph nodes

OR

Tumor has invaded up to the muscular layer (muscularis propria) and has spread to >/=16 nearby lymph nodes

IIIC T4b N3a-3b M0

 

OR

T3-4a N3b M0

Tumor invades adjacent structure/organs and has affected >/=7 lymph nodes

OR

Tumor has invaded into subserosal connective tissue or serosa and has spread to >/=16 nearby lymph nodes

IV Any T Any N M1 Tumor has spread to the distant organs such as lungs, bones, brain, etc

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